Title IX is the Federal Civil Rights law that prohibits sex discrimination in education. Signed into law by President Richard Nixon on June 23, 1972, it states (in part) that "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance".
Title IX is a portion of the Education Amendments of 1972, Public Law No. 92-318 http://tinyurl.com/awofrd2 and is codified at 20 U.S.C. sections 1681 through
Enforcement is the responsibility of the Department of Health and Human Services http://www.hhs.gov/ , previously known as the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW). It applies to primary and secondary schools
as well as vocational, professional, undergraduate and graduate programs. Did you know that it doesn't cover institutions that traditionally
admit only one sex or religious institutions where compliance with Title IX would go against their religious beliefs?
Source: Sports Law in a Nutshell, 4th edition by Walter T. Champion, Jr. and Wikipedia.